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Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR)

Sequencing batch reactors treat wastewater in a batch treatment process. Oxygen is bubbled through the wastewater to reduce BOD and COD, producing a high-quality effluent with a low turbidity.

The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor basin. By varying the operating strategy; aerobic, anaerobic, or anoxic conditions can be achieved to encourage the growth of desirable micro-organisms.


A sequencing batch reactor is a fill-and-draw type reactor system involving a single complete mix reactor in which all steps of the activated-sludge occur.

The operation of an SBR is based on a fill-and-draw principle, which consists of five steps-fill, react, settle, draw, and idle. These steps can be altered for different operational applications.


  • During the fill phase, the basin receives influent wastewater.
  • The influent brings food to the microbes in the activated sludge, creating an environment for biochemical reactions to take place.


  • During this phase, no wastewater enters the basin and the mechanical mixing and aeration units are on. Because there are no additional volume and organic loadings, the rate of organic removal increases.


  • During this phase, activated sludge is allowed to settle under quiescent conditions—no flow enters the basin and no aeration and mixing takes place.
  • The activated sludge tends to settle as a flocculent mass


  • During this phase, a decanter is used to remove the clear supernatant effluent.
  • There are Floating and Fixed-arm decanters.
    1.Floating decanters maintain the inlet orifice slightly below the water surface to minimize the removal of solids in the effluent removed during the decant phase.
    2.Fixed-arm decanters are less expensive and can be designed to allow the operator to lower or raise the level of the decanter


  • This step occurs between the decant and the fill phases. The time varies, based on the influent flow rate and the operating strategy.
  • During this phase, a small amount of activated sludge at the bottom of the SBR basin is pumped out.


  • No need of Settling Tank
  • No secondary clarifiers and return activated sludge lines
  • Consistent good quality treated water for reuse applications
  • Low Sludge productions
  • No clogging, cleaning and free from common treatment problems
  • Lower construction, installation, operation and maintenance cost

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